How does one become a computer architect? What type of education and knowledge does one need for this type of job? Is a Ph.D required? What are the roles that need to be filled in computer architecture?
Background: I was in the architecture group at Nvidia Bangalore for a few years before I quit to pursue an MS in Computer Architecture at Wisconsin-Madison. Now, I am a performance architect at Oracle. I agree with most of what has already been said in the prior answers. You need to be in the right place at the right time to get into an architecture group. In Oracle for example, there is a team of 1200 engineers in Micro-Electronics group, but only 13 engineers in the Performance Architecture group. To get into this group, you would need a PhD from a top architecture school and/or work experience that is extremely relevant to the company's focus. A PhD is not a sufficient condition to get in contrary to what Dan might think. Tens of architecture students graduate from the top universities every year, but there are only a handful of architecture positions open every year. There are different kinds of architects as has been pointed out as well. If micro-architecture is your cup of tea, then the best way is to start with a verif/design role in a RTL group. After a few years, you will understand the guts of the unit well enough to actually suggest meaningful changes to the design. This means that you will take a few years before you can make a dent to the architecture of the unit. The downside is that your focus is still extremely narrow. With the exception of the interactions of your unit with other units, you will still know very little about the rest of the system. In my own case, I am passionate about learning all about the system. Since a high end processor today is almost as (if not more complicated) than designing a rocket ship, this can mean a lifetime of learning. Getting into performance architecture is great starting point for this. Since you build simulators and models to predict the performance of a future processor, you can abstract away a tonne of micro-architectural details in the model. You can also simulate a couple of orders of magnitude more of the workload on the performance simulator than is possible from the RTL simulator. This allows you to be in a unique position to evaluate the design from a performance standpoint that even the designers don't have access to. Even more useful is that fact that you can experiment at the stage of the project where there is no RTL since there is no specification. This gives you the power to infuence the project during the product inception stage. It should be said that a detailed performance simulator that correlates well with the RTL also takes several years to get right. But once you get that out of the way, you can really do amazing things with the simulator by performing what if experiments and giving feedback to the designers on key proposals. Often, you are in a position to identify bottlenecks in the system and make proposals to enhance the design. Something like that would ordinarily take several years if you go through the traditional micro-arch route. Finally, in order to be a successful architect, I would say that you need a undying thirst to learn more and dip your hands in as many different challenges as possible. Apart from understanding the processor design on some level, you also need to understand the software stack and its interaction with hardware. You can also expand your scope further to understand the interactions of the processor with other system level aspects like network, I/O, virtualization, scaling etc.Regardless of the route you take to becoming a computer architect, it can be extremely fulfilling role if you have the patience to persevere.
What type of skills, talent is required to build a good brand for a product?
By applying these main concepts in your strategy, you can be a Brand Manager yourself, being consistent, fully understanding the market and continuously analyzing it, believing that your product should stand out from the rest and differentiating it from others, finding your target audience and encouraging trust between you and them by your services and products.
Which type of Visa is required to carry out summer research in USA?
A J1 visa for Research Scholars is a temporary exchange visitor visa that permits research scholars to conduct research, observe or consult with a research project at an accredited academic institution, research facility, museum, library or similar institution in the US.Disclaimer: usimmigration-center.com is a private entity and is not affiliated or approved by any government agency. It does not provide any legal advice.
Which type of data is easier to mine or requires less data pre-processing: transactional, database, or warehouse?
As William Emmanuel Yu has mentioned - it is Data-Warehouse. The reason being:Most of the data-warehouses are populated using a basic or advanced ETL tool that does most clean-up/rejectAggregated de-normalized structure. Helps you un-tangle complex relationship between different objectsHowever - in data-warehouse, depending on business criteria you tend to aggregate data - so chances are there you might miss some granular data if you need that sort of information in your inference
Which type of power supply (AC/DC) is required for RTD? How much current is required for RTD?
RTD is a resistor whose resistance varies with temperature. I suppose you want to measure the temperature using an RTD. Normal method uses a constant current source(DC). Common RTDs are PT100s i.e, it has 100 ohms resistance at 0 degree Centigrade. So, if you pass 1mA constant current through the PT100, it will read 100mV across with a multimeter. In your system there should be an amplifier present in the form of hardware or firmware, that has two parameters to adjust-offset and gain. Adjust offset (preset or software depending on your hardware) to read zero on display for the PT100 at 100 ohms which would be 100mV when 1mA is passed through it. Similarly adjust gain with PT100 at the resistance that corresponds to the temperature of your choice.Now, to get slightly serious with instrumentation, although 1mA is a matter of convenience, it generates internal heating of RTD thereby giving error during longer periods. So engineers use constant current 100uA(0.1mA) or 10uA(0.01mA) to minimize the error due to internal heating.
How can I add my mobile number in Aadhar Card?
Since “adding” the mobile number is being mentioned, I will assume that initially the Aadhar card is not linked to any other mobile number.If no mobile number is associated or linked with your Aadhar card, in that case you will have to visit a Aadhar Kendra, or Aadhar Enrollment centre. There, you can apply for Linking mobile number, a form will be available for that purpose. You will have to produce your Aadhar card, fill the form. Your Biometric information will be verified at the centre, and the information will be updated/added. At the same time you can also update your other details if you want, like your photo. There is a small processing fee involved and you should get a receipt for your payment.However, if a mobile number is already linked to your Aadhar card, you can easily update at the online portal on the UIDAI website. Complete information on procedure is available on UIDAI - Official Website.Links:All the Aadhar Card services and information can be found at: UIDAI - Official Website. Please visit the website to get all the details.Check your mobile link status: https://resident.uidai.gov.in/ve...To update your mobile number if already another mobile number is linked to your Aadhar card ( All links are taken from UIDAI - Official Website):Instructions: https://ssup.uidai.gov.in/web/gu...Online portal: https://ssup.uidai.gov.in/web/gu...